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麻省理工学院2003秋季课程:魔法、巫术和灵魂世界(Magic, Witchcraft, and the Spirit World, Fall 2003)

根据麻省理工学院“开放式课程网页”整理

http://lucifer.fantasy.tw/cocw/mit/Anthropology/21A-112Fall2003/CourseHome/index.htm

2003秋季课程:魔法、巫术和灵魂世界(Magic, Witchcraft, and the Spirit World, Fall 2003)


师资
讲师:
James Howe 教授 
上课时数
教师授课:
每周2节
每节3小时
 
程度
大学部 

翻译:杨鸿
编辑:韦东

教学大纲

这门课所涉及的主要是把日常生活与另一个现实世界的规律隔离开来的境界,灵魂世界、法力、神秘威胁以及这些障碍被消减或突破发生的种种情况。文章所举实例主要来自欧洲和北美,这样做的部分原因是为了反驳巫术和灵魂主要出自非西方世界的观念假设。而总体上,我们的目的不是要提倡或批判信仰和与之相应的行为,而是用人类学和历史学的方法去理解这些现象。从社会和政治的场景中观察它们,在人们的生活中审视它们的地位。

这学期大致上有一半的时间会安排以下课题:灵魂控制和上天的惩罚与恩赐,催眠法以及转换的意识状态。这其中,将会特别关注:阿巴拉契亚的蛇疗和催眠法;19世纪美国的招魂说和灵媒学;1931年西班牙北部,圣母玛利亚的探访;20世纪后期美国有关被外星生命绑架的声称。

而这学期另一半的时间将安排的内容是:担心他人通过隐秘的手段进行危害而带来的恐惧和这种恐惧心理造成的后果,尤其是精神上的恐慌。主要的例子有,15世纪到17世纪的欧洲大规模的政治迫害;1692年美国塞勒姆的巫师审判;对恶性虐待的担忧和20世纪末的托儿审判,我们也会简要地关注更多的魔法实践。

有关以上课题的历史学和人类学研究在最近几十年里迅速发展,这些研究成果改变了人们对巫术和灵魂控制的理解。我们着重关心不是得出绝对的结论,而是学会怎样分析信仰及其实践,体会历史纪录的复杂性和模糊性,权衡不同的解释。

这堂课没有期末考试,但要求学生就这门课所学内容发表若干篇评论,还要完成小型研究任务。考虑到把内容戏剧化和在幻灯片上分析历史事件的难度,我们会放映一些影片资料,并把它作为了一种信息来源。课程还包括一个下午到丹佛镇,原塞勒姆村庄的做实地野外考察。

 

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This class is concerned with the boundaries between everyday life and another order of reality, the world of spirits, powers, and mystical dangers, and with what happens when those barriers ease or break apart. Examples are drawn primarily from Europe and North America, in part to counter the assumption that belief in witchcraft and spirits is particularly associated with the non-western world. Throughout, our goal will be, not to promote or debunk belief and practice, but rather to understand them using approaches from anthropologiy and history, seeing them in social and political context and considering their place in people\'s lives.

Roughly half the semester will be devoted to spirit possession and visitation, trance, and altered states of consciousness, in particular to: snake handling and trance in Appalachia; spiritualism and mediumship in 19th century America; visitations by the Virgin Mary during 1931 in northern Spain; claims of abduction by space aliens in late 20th century America.

The other half of the semester will be devoted to fears that other people are causing harm through hidden or mystical means, and the consequences of such fears, especially moral panics. The primary examples will be great European witch hunt of the 15th-17th centuries; the Salem Village witchcraft trials of 1692; fears of satanic abuse and the daycare trials of the late 20th century, we will also look much more briefly at the practice of magic.

Historical and anthropological research on these topics has grown rapidly in recent decades, changing understandings of witchcraft and spirit possession. We will be concerned not so much with coming to absolute conclusions as with learning how to analyze belief and practice; appreciating the complexity and ambiguity of the historical record; and with weighing alternative interpretations.

There is no final exam. Students will write several essays and small research assignments over the course of the semester. We will see a number of films, as a way to consider the difficulties of dramatizing and analyzing historical events on film, as well as a source of information.There will be one afternoon field trip to the town of Danvers, the original Salem Village.
 

教学时长及阅读材料 

课 课程单元 阅读资料


1 简介
Introduction


2 视频和讨论,灵魂控制
Videos & discussion, spirit possession 课堂读物: articles by Slyomovichs & Ong; start Covington, Sand Mountain)
Class Reader: articles by Slyomovichs & Ong; start Covington, Sand Mountain


3 电影:信奉圣灵的人们(PDF)
Film, The Holy Ghost people (PDF) Covington, all


4 讨论电影和阅读Covington(PDF)
Discuss film and Covington reading (PDF)


5 电影:心灵学的奥秘
Film, Secrets of the Psychics Braude, 急进的灵魂, 1-4章
Braude, Radical Spirits, chaps. 1-4


6 电影:死者的电报(PDF)
Film, Telegrams from the Dead (PDF) Braude, 5-8章
Braude, chaps. 5-8


7 讨论招魂说
Discuss spiritualism


8 占卜术和魔法
Divination and magic Reader,基督教
Reader, Christian


9 讨论占卜师(PDF)
Discuss Visionaries (PDF) Levack, 1-3章;reader, Briggs, "邪恶的投影"
Levack, chaps. 1-3; reader, Briggs, "Projection of Evil"


10 巫术;电影:奇怪的信仰
Witchcraft; film, Strange Beliefs Levack, 4-5章
Levack, chaps. 4-5


11 异教,千禧年学说和政治迫害;课堂报告
Heresy, millenialism & witch hunting; class reports Levack, 6章; reader, Briggs "男人对女人," Willis
Levack, chaps. 6; reader, Briggs "Men against Women," Willis


12 讨论欧洲政治迫害;课堂报告
Discuss European witch hunt; class reports


13 欧洲 2;村庄
Europe 2; villages Levack, 7-8章; Boyer & Nissenbaum, 1章
Levack, chaps. 7-8; Boyer & Nissenbaum, chap. 1


14 欧洲 3;性别;课堂报告
Europe 3; gender; class reports


15 电影:对撒拉的三大统治,第一部分
Film, Three Sovereigns for Sarah, Part I B&N, 2-5章; reader, Karlsen & Rosenthal
B&N, chaps.2-5; reader, Karlsen & Rosenthal


16 三大统治,第二部分
Three Sovereigns,part II


17 考察塞勒姆村(丹佛)(PDF)
Visit Salem Village (Danvers) (PDF) B&N, 6-8章
B&N, chaps. 6-8


18 讨论塞勒姆;课堂报告
Discuss Salem; class reports Reader, Showalter, Acocella, Rothenberg, Grann


19 塞勒姆 2;课堂报告
Salem 2; class reports


20 关于持外星生命存在态度的电影(PDF)
Film on space alien possession (PDF) Reader, Loftus & Ketcham, Ofshe &Watters


21 讨论外星生命,人格分裂(PDF)
Discuss space aliens, split personality (PDF)


22 寻找撒旦
Film, Search for Satan


23 邪恶的阴谋,苏醒的记忆
Satanic conspiracies, recovered memory


24 电影:破碎的记忆
Film, Divided Memories


25 破碎的记忆,讨论
Divided Memories, discussion


26 总结
Wrap-up